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    Platinum

    Platinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina del Pinto, which is literally translated into “little silver of the Pinto River.” It is a dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal. Even though it has six naturally occurring isotopes, platinum is one of the rarest elements in the Earth’s crust and has an average abundance of approximately 0.005 mg/kg. It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa which accounts for 80% of the world production.

    As a member of the platinum group of elements, as well as of the group 10 of the periodic table of elements, platinum is generally unreactive. It exhibits a remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and as such is considered a noble metal. As a result, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it became investigated by scientists.

    Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Because only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, it is a scarce material, and is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health issues upon exposure to its salts, but due to its corrosion resistance it is not toxic as a metal. Some of its compounds, most notably Cisplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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